Section 1 Use of English
Directions: Read the following text. Choose the best word(s) for each numbered blank and mark [A], [B], [C] or [D] on ANSWER SHEET 1. (10 points)
Happy people work differently. They’re more productive, more creative, and willing to take greater risks. And new research suggests that happiness might influence__1__firm’s work, too.
Companies located in places with happier people invest more, according to a recent research paper.__2__, firms in happy places spend more on R&D (research and development). That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking__3__for making investments for the future.
The researchers wanted to know if the__4__and inclination for risk-taking that come with happiness would__5__the way companies invested. So they compared U.S. cities’ average happiness__6__by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.
__7__enough, firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were__8__.But is it really happiness that’s linked to investment, or could something else about happier cities__9__why firms there spend more on R&D? To find out, the researchers controlled for various__10__that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales – and for indicators that a place was__11__to live in, like growth in wages or population. The link between happiness and investment generally__12__even after accounting for these things.
The correlation between happiness and investment was particularly strong for younger firms, which the authors__13__to “less codified decision making process” and the possible presence of “younger and less__14__managers who are more likely to be influenced by sentiment.” The relationship was__15__stronger in places where happiness was spread more__16__.Firms seem to invest more in places where most people are relatively happy, rather than in places with happiness inequality.
__17__ this doesn’t prove that happiness causes firms to invest more or to take a longer-term view, the authors believe it at least__18__at that possibility. It’s not hard to imagine that local culture and sentiment would help__19__how executives think about the future. “It surely seems plausible that happy people would be more forward-thinking and creative and__20__R&D more than the average,” said one researcher.
1. [A] why [B] where [C] how [D] when
2. [A] In return [B] In particular [C] In contrast [D] In conclusion
3. [A] sufficient [B] famous [C] perfect [D] necessary
4. [A] individualism [B] modernism [C] optimism [D] realism
5. [A] echo [B] miss [C] spoil [D] change
6. [A] imagined [B] measured [C] invented [D] assumed
7. [A] Sure [B] Odd [C] Unfortunate [D] Often
8. [A] advertised [B] divided [C] overtaxed [D] headquartered
9. [A] explain [B] overstate [C] summarize [D] emphasize
10. [A] stages [B] factors [C] levels [D] methods
11. [A] desirable [B] sociable [C] reputable [D] reliable
12. [A] resumed [B] held [C]emerged [D] broke
13. [A] attribute [B] assign [C] transfer [D]compare
14. [A] serious [B] civilized [C] ambitious [D]experienced
15. [A] thus [B] instead [C] also [D] never
16. [A] rapidly [B] regularly [C] directly [D] equally
17. [A] After [B] Until [C] While [D] Since
18. [A] arrives [B] jumps [C] hints [D] strikes
19. [A] shape [B] rediscover [C] simplify [D] share 20. [A] pray for [B] lean towards [C] give away [D] send out
1. [标准答案] [C]how
[选项分析] 根据语境，“新发现表明：快乐可能会影响工作__的稳定。”[A] 为什么 [B] 哪里 [C] 怎样，多么 [D] 当…时候。根据语义分析，C选项填入原文，译为“快乐可能会影响工作是有多么稳定”，C为正确选项。
2. [标准答案] [B]In particular
[选项分析] [A] 反过来 [B] 尤其是 [C] 相反 [D] 总的来说 根据前文语境，第二段第一句译为“根据近期的研究，拥有更多快乐的人的公司会投资更多”。而第二句“_______那些在快乐氛围中的公司会做更多的研发以及发展。“第二句是在第一句的基础上进一步强调说明，因此B选项更符合语境要求。
3. [标准答案] [D]necessary
[选项分析] [A]充足的 [B] 著名的 [C] 完美的 [D] 必要的 首先，根据本句题干 “That’s because happiness is linked to the kind of longer-term thinking 3 for making investments for the future.”译为“因为快乐与对未来投资有______长远考虑相联系。”要求填写形容词, 我们要考虑其搭配与其修饰成分。空格处搭配介词for, 并且修饰“长远考虑”。因此D选项最符合语境要求。
4. [标准答案] [C]optimism
[选项分析] [A]个人主义 [B] 现代主义 [C] 乐观主义 [D] 现实主义 本题考查同后缀的名词辨析。根据原文主旨，探讨“happy people”与公司的关系。那么，衡量四个选项，只有C选项符合主旨要求。
5. [标准答案] [D]change
[选项分析] [A]发出回声 [B] 想念，错过 [C] 破坏 [D] 改变 根据原文语境，“would 5 the way companies invested.”本题考查动宾搭配，宾语为“公司投资的方式”只有D选项搭配最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]想象 [B] 衡量，测量 [C] 发明 [D] 假定，设想 “So they compared U.S. cities’average happiness 6 by Gallup polling with the investment activity of publicly traded firms in those areas.”译为“他们把盖洛普咨询公司所_____的美国城市平均幸福指数与该地区的上市公司投资活跃度进行对比。” 根据原文语境，盖洛普咨询公司所做的应该是一个“既定事实”所以排除ACD。因此，B选项为最佳选项。
[选项分析] [A]确信的 [B] 奇怪的 [C] 不幸运的 [D] 经常的 本题为固定搭配“sure enough” 译为“足以肯定的是，”
[选项分析] [A]广告的 [B] 划分的 [C] 课税过重的 [D]位于总部的 根据原文“ firms’ investment and R&D intensity were correlated with the happiness of the area in which they were 8 . ”译为“足以肯定的是，公司投资与研发力度与公司______的幸福指数相关。”in which 引导表示地点的定语从句，先行词为area.对比四个选项，ABC不足以说明此地点的真实含义。因此，D选项，搭配前文area,构成“总部所在地”最为合理。
[选项分析] [A]解释 [B] 夸大 [C] 概述[D]重点强调 根据原文“…or ould something else about happier cities 9 why firms there spend more on R&D?” A选项 “explain”常和后文 “why” 搭配使用。
[选项分析] [A]阶段 [B] 因素 [C] 等级[D]方法 根据原文语境“To find out, the researchers controlled for various 10 that might make firms more likely to invest – like size, industry, and sales…”本题中，破折号后面 “大小，产业，销售”这些都是 “让公司有更多投资的”因素。因此，B选项最符合原文语境。
11.[标准答案] [A] desirable
[选项分析] 该空填的是形容词，用来修饰前面的名词place,并且在意义上也是对后面like growth in wages or population的解释，可以看出来应该是填褒义词，并且能修饰place.所以只有[A]desirable合适的 符合文章。[B]social 社交的 [C]reputable 受尊敬的 [D]reliable 可依靠的。
12. [标准答案] [B]held
[选项分析] 该句算是这一段的总结句，该段整体在描述幸福与投资之间的关系，而这一link就只能得出了，只有[B]held ”得出”符合语境。A resumed “重新开始”，C emerge “浮现”，D broke “破坏”。
13.[标准答案] [A] attribute
[选项分析]该空是一个which引导的定语从句的谓语动词所在地，动词的宾语就是前面的主句，强调“幸福与投资之间的关系尤其适用于新公司”这一结论与后面“所做决定会偏草率”之间的关系，能看出是一个因果关系，因此答案选择[A]attribute 与to 搭配表示“归因于……”，而[B]assign to表示“指派”[C]transfer to“转移到”[D]compare to“与……比较”均不符合题意。
14.[标准答案] [D] experienced
[选项分析] 此处很简单，前面有一个并列连词and, 与前面的young一致修饰managers,强调新公司的领导年轻并缺乏经验，只有[D]experienced最合适。
15. [标准答案] [C] also
16. [标准答案] [D]equally
[选项分析] 这题是考察副词修饰spread, 但是更要注意的是该句“这种关系在员工幸福指数_____的公司尤为明显。公司似乎乐于投资那些相对快乐的员工所在的部门，而不是那些不快乐的部门。”中该空与后面的inequality形成复现关系，所以很容易判断出答案选择[D]equally。
17. [标准答案] [C] while
18. [标准答案] [C]hints
[选项分析] 该题可以看出是考察动词与at的固定搭配，arrive at是“到达，抵达”，jump at是“扑向;欣然接受”hint at是“暗示” strike at是“袭击，攻击”，文章中的at least 和that possibility论证了这是一种可能，只有hint at有这层含义。
19. [标准答案] [A]shape
[选项分析] 根据上下文应该选一个“影响”未来看法含义的动词，[B]是“再发现”[C]是“使简化，使单纯”[D]是“分享”所以可以均可以排除，A 是“塑造，形成，影响”，所以A项是最佳答案。
20. [标准答案] [B]lean towards
[考点分析] 本空考察动词词组，且该词组词义应与and前面意思保持一致，且作用对象为研发。[A]pray for 祈祷 [B]lean towards 倾向 [C]give away 放弃，泄露 [D]send out 放出，给予。只有[B]选项能表达一种递进含义。
Section Ⅱ Reading Comprehension
Directions：Read the following four texts. Answer the questions after each text by choosing A, B, C or D. Mark your answers on ANSWER SHEET 1. (40 points)
It’s true that high-school coding classes aren’t essential for learning computer science in college. Students without experience can catch up after a few introductory courses, said Tom Cortina, the assistant dean at Carnegie Mellon’s School of Computer Science.
However, Cortina said, early exposure is beneficial. When younger kids learn computer science, they learn that it’s not just a confusing, endless string of letters and numbers — but a tool to build apps, or create artwork, or test hypotheses. It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. Breaking down problems into bite-sized chunks and using code to solve them becomes normal. Giving more children this training could increase the number of people interested in the field and help fill the jobs gap, Cortina said.
Students also benefit from learning something about coding before they get to college, where introductory computer-science classes are packed to the brim, which can drive the less-experienced or-determined students away.
The Flatiron School, where people pay to learn programming, started as one of the many coding bootcamps that’s become popular for adults looking for a career change. The high-schoolers get the same curriculum, but “we try to gear lessons toward things they’re interested in,” said Victoria Friedman, an instructor. For instance, one of the apps the students are developing suggests movies based on your mood.
The students in the Flatiron class probably won’t drop out of high school and build the next Facebook. Programming languages have a quick turnover, so the “Ruby on Rails” language they learned may not even be relevant by the time they enter the job market. But the skills they learn — how to think logically through a problem and
organize the results — apply to any coding language, said Deborah Seehorn, an education consultant for the state of North Carolina.
Indeed, the Flatiron students might not go into IT at all. But creating a future army of coders is not the sole purpose of the classes. These kids are going to be surrounded by computers — in their pockets, in their offices, in their homes — for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think, how to coax the machine into producing what they want — the earlier they learn that they have the power to do that — the better.
21. Cortina holds that early exposure to computer science makes it easier to____.
A. complete future job training
B. remodel the way of thinking
C. formulate logical hypotheses
D. perfect artwork production
22. In delivering lessons for high-schoolers, Flatiron has considered their____.
B. academic backgrounds
C. career prospects
23. Deborah Seehorn believes that the skills learned at Flatiron will____.
A. help students learn other computer languages
B. have to be upgraded when new technologies come
C. need improving when students look for jobs
D. enable students to make big quick money
24. According to the last paragraph, Flatiron students are expected to____.
A. compete with a future army of programmers
B. stay longer in the information technology industry
C. become better prepared for the digitalized world
D. bring forth innovative computer technologies
25. The word “coax” (Line4, Para.6) is closest in meaning to____.
21 答案 B remodel the way of thinking.
解析：此题是文中人物观点题。根据Cortina定位到第二段前三句。Cortina认为尽早接触计算机科学是有益的。第三句It’s not as hard for them to transform their thought processes as it is for older students. 译为在转变思维程序方面小孩不像年龄较大的学生一样困难，即B remodel the way of thinking 转变思维方式即为同义替换。
22 答案 D interest
23 答案 A help students learn other computer languages
解析：文中人物观点题。题干问的是Deborah Seehorn认为在Flatiron这里所学到的技能将能怎么样，据此定位到第五段But处，和题干基本一致，该句指出“But the skills they learn…appl to any coding language”，意思是他们学到的技能可以应用于任何编码语言。对比答案选项，A选项的意思是“帮助学生学习其他的计算机语言”属于原文定位处的同义替换。
24 答案 C become better prepared for the digitalized world
解析：细节题。题干指出：根据最后一段，Flatiron的学生被期望去干什么。据此定位到最后一段的These kids are going to be处，是题干的同义复现。定位句“These kids are…be surrounded by computers for the rest of their lives. The younger they learn how computers think…….the better.”，意思是学生们越早学越好。C选项“为数字化的未来做更好的准备”是同义概述。
25 答案 B persuade
解析：词义句意题，结合上下文来解题。根据coax此单词，定位到最后一段最后一句“how to coax the machine into producing what they want”，考察固定搭配“persuade…into…”。A选项挑战，B选项劝服，C选项使恐慌，D选项误导。考生做题时一定要注意结合上下文来推测生词的词义，这是命题人的出题 规律。
Biologists estimate that as many as 2 million lesser prairie chickens---a kind of bird living on stretching grasslands—once lent red to the often gray landscape of the midwestern and southwestern United States. But just some 22,000 birds remain today, occupying about 16% of the species’ historic range.
The crash was a major reason the U.S Fish and Wildlife Service (USFWS)decided to formally list the bird as threatened. “The lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation,” said USFWS Director Daniel Ashe. Some environmentalists, however, were disappointed. They had pushed the agency to designate the bird as “endangered,” a status that gives federal officials greater regulatory power to crack down on threats. But Ashe and others argued that the“threatened” tag gave the federal government flexibility to try out new, potentially less confrontational conservations approaches. In particular, they called for forging closer collaborations with western state governments, which are often uneasy with federal action and with the private landowners who control an estimated 95% of the prairie chicken’s habitat.
Under the plan, for example, the agency said it would not prosecute landowner or businesses that unintentionally kill, harm, or disturb the bird, as long as they had signed a range—wide management plan to restore prairie chicken habitat. Negotiated by USFWS and the states, the plan requires individuals and businesses that damage habitat as part of their operations to pay into a fund to replace every acre destroyed with 2 new acres of suitable habitat. The fund will also be used to compensate landowners who set aside habitat, USFWS also set an interim goal of restoring prairie chicken populations to an annual average of 67,000 birds over the next 10 years. And it gives the Western Association of Fish and Wildlife Agencies (WAFWA), a coalition of state agencies, the job of monitoring progress. Overall, the idea is to let “states” remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species，” Ashe said.
Not everyone buys the win-win rhetoric Some Congress members are trying to block the plan, and at least a dozen industry groups, four states, and three environmental groups are challenging it in federal court Not surprisingly, doesn’t go far enough “The federal government is giving responsibility for managing the bird to the same industries that are pushing it to extinction,” says biologist Jay Lininger.
26. The major reason for listing the lesser prairie as threatened is____
[A]its drastically decreased population
[B]the underestimate of the grassland acreage
[C]a desperate appeal from some biologists
[D]the insistence of private landowners
27.The “threatened” tag disappointed some environmentalists in that it_____
[A]was a give-in to governmental pressure
[B]would involve fewer agencies in action
[C]granted less federal regulatory power
[D]went against conservation policies
28.It can be learned from Paragraph3 that unintentional harm-doers will not be prosecuted if they_____
[A]agree to pay a sum for compensation
[B]volunteer to set up an equally big habitat
[C]offer to support the WAFWA monitoring job
[D]promise to raise funds for USFWS operations
29.According to Ashe， the leading role in managing the species in______
[A]the federal government
[B]the wildlife agencies
30.Jay Lininger would most likely support_______
[B]the win-win rhetoric
[D]the plan under challenge
26 答案 A its drastically decreased population
解析：此题是原因细节题。根据关键词定位到第一段But前后关于lesser prairie chickens 数量2million和22,000的强烈对比。此外第二段第二句“the lesser prairie chicken is in a desperate situation”都可以得知A its drastically decreased population 数量的急剧下降为正确答案。
27 答案 C granted less federal regulatory powers
解析：此题是原因细节题。根据关键词定位到第二段第四句，They had …, a state that gives federal officials greater regulatory power. 而But 之后是截然相反的事实，即政府授予了更少的管理权。故而C granted less federal regulatory powers为正确答案。
28 答案 A agree to pay a sum for compensation
解析：推断题。题干问的是从第三段推出来：无意伤害的那些人是不会被检举的如果怎么样。根据题干定位到第三段首句“it would not prosecute….as long as ….”，题干中问的if即原文的as long as的同意替换，原文as long as的意思是：只要他们签署了计划。下一句说道，该计划要求个体和企业去支付基金。对应选项A选项“赞同支付赔偿”属于同义替换。
29 答案 D the states
解析：此题是细节题。根据关键词定位到第三段最后一句the idea is to let the“states”remain in the driver’s seat for managing the species, Ashe said. 其中in the driver’s seat对应题干中的the leading role, 故而D states为正确答案。
30 答案 C environmental groups
解析：文中人物观点题。题干问的是Jay Lininger最可能支持谁，大写人名定位到末段最后一句。最后一句提到：生物学家Jay Lininger说道联邦政府要把责任推给导致鸟类灭绝的企业，显然是对政府和企业的反对。再往前看一句，指出：企业团体和政府部门观点一致，环境学家与其观点恰巧一致。因此，Jay Lininger最支持环境团体的观点了。
That everyone’s too busy these days is a cliché. But one specific complaint is made especially mournfully： There’s never any time to read.
What makes the problem thornier is that the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient. The web’s full of articles offering tips on making time to read: “Give up TV” or “Carry a book with you at all times” But in my experience, using such methods to free up the odd 30 minutes doesn’t work. Sit down to read and the flywheel of work-related thoughts keeps spinning-or else you’re so exhausted that a challenging book’s the last thing you need. The modern mind, Tim Parks, a novelist and critic, writes, “is overwhelmingly inclined toward communication…It is not simply that one is interrupted; it is that one is actually inclined to interruption”. Deep reading requires not just time, but a special kind of time which can’t be obtained merely by becoming more efficient.
In fact, “becoming more efficient” is part of the problem. Thinking of time as a resource to be maximised means you approach it instrumentally, judging any given moment as well spent only in so far as it advances progress toward some goal immersive reading, by contrast, depends on being willing to risk inefficiency, goallessness, even time-wasting. Try to slot it as a to-do list item and you’ll manage only goal-focused reading-useful, sometimes, but not the most fulfilling kind. “The future comes at us like empty bottles along an unstoppable and nearly infinite conveyor belt,” writes Gary Eberle in his book Sacred Time, and “we feel a pressure to fill these different-sized bottles (days, hours, minutes)as they pass, for if they get by without being filled, we will have wasted them”. No mind-set could be worse for losing yourself in a book.
So what does work? Perhaps surprisingly, scheduling regular times for reading. You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, Eberle notes, such ritualistic behaviour helps us “step outside time’s flow” into “soul time”. You could limit distractions by reading only physical books, or on single-purpose e-readers. “Carry a book with you at all times” can actually work, too-providing you dip in often enough, so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business, before dropping back down. On a really good day, it no longer feels as if you’re “making time to read,” but just reading, and making time for everything else.
31. The usual time-management techniques don’t work because
[A] what they can offer does not ease the modern mind
[B] what challenging books demand is repetitive reading
[C] what people often forget is carrying a book with them
[D] what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed
32. The “empty bottles” metaphor illustrates that people feel a pressure to
[A] update their to-do lists
[B] make passing time fulfilling
[C] carry their plans through
[D] pursue carefree reading
33. Eberle would agree that scheduling regular times for reading helps
[A] encourage the efficiency mind-set
[B] develop online reading habits
[C] promote ritualistic reading
[D] achieve immersive reading
34. “Carry a book with you at all times” can work if
[A] reading becomes your primary business of the day
[B] all the daily business has been promptly dealt with
[C] you are able to drop back to business after reading
[D] time can be evenly split for reading and business
35. The best title for this text could be
[A] How to Enjoy Easy Reading
[B] How to Find Time to Read
[C] How to Set Reading Goals
[D] How to Read Extensively
31 答案 D what deep reading requires cannot be guaranteed.
解析：因果细节题。题干指出：传统的时间管理方法不起作用的原因是什么。根据题干定位到第二段首句指出the usual time-management techniques don’t seem sufficient，是题干的同义替换，但要找原因。整段都在分析过程环节，最终原因必然在该段末句提到。直接定位到该段末句，指出深入阅读不仅需要时间，而且是一种仅仅通过有效无法获得的一种时间。结合选项D，深入阅读所需的无法得到确保，是原文末句的同义替换。
32 答案 B make passing time fulfilling
解析：题干问的是“empty bottles”暗喻证明了人们在做什么方面有压力，empty bottles直接可以在文中Gary Eberle所说的话中找到：“The future comes at us like empty bottles…”。其所说的话证明的目的必然是为了说明前一句的观点。因此，该题定位到三段“try to slot…but not the most fulfilling kind”，该句就指出：只会处理目标集中的阅读，这是有用的，但不是最有满足感的。结合选项B使流逝的时间更有满足感，是原文的同义替换。
33 答案 D achieve immersive reading
解析：文中人物观点题，注意区分文中人物观点和作者观点。题干问的是Eberle赞同为阅读设定规定性时间帮助什么。根据题干精确定位到第四段第二句：“You’d think this might fuel the efficiency mind-set, but in fact, E…..into soul time”，意思是你会认为这可以提升效率性思维设定，但实际上这些行为帮助我们跨入到灵魂阅读时间。对应选项D，获得深入阅读，属于同义替换。
34 答案 A reading becomes your primary business of the day
解析：细节题。题干指出：总是带一本书会起作用如果怎么样。根据题干定位到末段中间部分“carry a book with you at all times can actually work, too … so that reading becomes the default state from which you temporarily surface to take care of business.”，意思是这样的话阅读就成为默认状态，偶尔会出来管理工作(注意business并非默认状态，非主要事情)。对应选项A 阅读成为每天的主要任务，是该句的同义替换。
35 答案 B How to Find Time to Read